Who governs the Catholic Church?

The Catholic Church is governed by the Bishop of Rome, who is also known less formally as the Pope. According to the teachings of the Church, the Bishop of Rome has primacy over other bishops as the successor of Saint Peter, to whom Christ has given the keys to heaven.

On the other hand, the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome is known as the Holy See and is directly administered by Roman Curia, which consists of various institutions that act in the name of the Pope. The Pope is also the ruler of the Vatican City State which is the independent and internationally recognized sovereign territory of the Holy See.

Who  is the current bishop of Rome?

After being elected in 2013, currently, it is Pope Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio. He has chosen that name in the honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and because he is the first-named with such a name no regnal number is used. Pope Francis is the first pope to not choose a name that was used by any of his predecessors since the 10th century.

In case that some of his successors also choose the same name, the current pope will become Francis I, and his successor Francis II.

What is government system of Vatican City?

The system of government employed in the Vatican City State can be described as the absolutist monarchy, and as such is the last one in Europe. Pope is the sovereign of the Vatican and has absolute power over legislative, executive, and judicial matters. Throughout history, the Bishop of Rome was the Prince of Vatican State, and due to this pope is the head of the state of the Vatican City.

Does Vatican City have foreign relations with other countries?

Vatican City State is an internationally recognized sovereign country, and as such it has diplomatic relations with many other countries and international organizations. Because it is governed by the Holy See, these relations are conducted by it. Holy See maintains the diplomatic missions in almost all countries in the world which are led by papal envoys, nuncios.

Due to geographic limits of the size of the Vatican City, diplomatic missions to the Holy See are located around it in the Italian capital of Rome.

What is swiss guard?

Swiss Guard was founded in the early 16th century as the military force of the Papal States, consisting of Catholics from Switzerland. Today it is a ceremonial military unit that provides personal protection of the Bishop of Rome.